Clonazolam (also known as clonitrazolam) is a drug of the triazolobenzodiazepine (TBZD) class, which are benzodiazepines (BZDs) fused with a triazole ring. It has had very little research done about its effects and metabolism, and has been sold online as a designer drug.
The synthesis of clonazolam was first reported in 1971 and the drug was described as the most active compound in the series tested.
Clonazolam is reported to be highly potent and concerns have been raised that it and flubromazolam in particular may pose comparatively higher risk than other designer benzodiazepines due to their ability to produce strong sedation and amnesia at as little as 0.5 mgEffects
Clonazolam's effects are similar to other benzodiazepines, such as anxiolysis, disinhibition, lethargy, muscle relaxation, and euphoria. While no dose of clonazolam is considered "safe" due to its lack of research and extreme potency, doses higher than 0.5 mg can cause benzodiazepine overdose in some individuals. The effects of a benzodiazepine overdose include sedation, confusion, insufficient breathing, loss of consciousness, and death. Because dependence can occur in a short period of time, or even with a large initial dose, withdrawal symptoms (including seizures and death) may occur acutely following the period of intoxication.
Background: Recently the number of new psychoactive substances have significantly increased, becoming popular among experienced users of designer drugs. A significant group includes benzodiazepine derivatives, which have not been introduced as medications but are abused by people experimenting with new and classical psychoactive substances.
Case presentation: The aim of this paper was to present the case of a clonazolam ingestion by a person who was not habituated to benzodiazepines. The intake caused only prolonged coma, decreased muscle tone, and deep tendon reflexes without any other concomitant toxicity and cardio-respiratory failure.
Conclusions: Clonazolam concentrations in patient's blood, measured three times were 0.077 mg/L, 0.015 mg/L, 0.009 mg/L after 4, 8 and 12 h, respectively. Clonazolam's human toxicity has not been well established, so any case of poisoning should be closely monitored.
Keywords: Blood confirmation; Clonazolam; New designer benzodiazepine.